Neurogenesis, Synaptogenesis, Dendric Remodeling

See Also: Synapses & Dendrites

It is optimal to take doses every 3 days to promote the following non-stop:

Neurogenesis – Ketamine has been shown to increase the birth of new neurons (neurogenesis) in the brain’s hippocampus in animal studies. This may occur through ketamine’s effects on increasing BDNF, a growth factor essential for neurogenesis. [1] The new neurons generated could help improve mood and cognition.

Synaptogenesis – Ketamine may also promote the formation of new synapses (synaptogenesis), the connections between neurons. This has been seen in the prefrontal cortex in animal studies. [2] The increased connectivity could strengthen neural circuits essential for mood regulation.

Dendritic Remodeling – Ketamine rapidly increases the number and length of dendrites, the branching projections of neurons that receive signals. This remodeling of dendrites in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may enhance neural plasticity and communication. [3]

Overall, ketamine seems to stimulate 3 key processes – neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and dendritic remodeling – that could reconstruct neural circuits and connectivity. This may help explain ketamine’s rapid and sustained effects on depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions. [4] The details of how ketamine triggers these neuroplastic changes are still under investigation. [5]

  1. Yang et al. “Ketamine blocks bursting in the lateral habenula to rapidly relieve depression.” Nature 2013.
  2. Li et al. “Ketamine induces hippocampal synaptogenesis via activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors.” Biological Psychiatry 2015.
  3. Zhou et al. “Rapid Reversal of Dendritic Spine Deficits in a Mouse Model of Psychiatric Disorders following Ketamine Treatment.” Neuropsychopharmacology. 2020.
  4. Abdallah et al. “Ketamine, synaptic plasticity and depression: current understanding and potential therapeutic implications.” Molecular Psychiatry. 2020.
  5. Zhang et al. “Pattern of Neural Synchronization in Ketamine Treatment-Resistant Major Depression.” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018.

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